Microsoft SharePoint Online, OneDrive, and Microsoft Teams can help organizations keep their files safe, share information more effectively, and communicate with ease. In this post, learn the basics of how to configure and manage SharePoint Online, OneDrive, and Microsoft Teams. I will explain how to create a SharePoint site, manage SharePoint storage, and share documents in OneDrive. I will also outline the basics of working with Microsoft Teams, as well as how to deploy the communications platform within your organization.
- Managing files using OneDrive and OneDrive for Business
- Working with Microsoft Teams
- Moving from Skype for Business Online to Teams
OneDrive and OneDrive for Business
Another integral part of Office 365 is the cloud-based storage. OneDrive and OneDrive for Business provide a secure cloud-based storage where you can store, share and sync your files. You can think of it as your hard drive in the cloud. One of the most useful aspects of OneDrive is that any data is accessible via the internet using a secure browser connection from any location. Data can also be accessed using many different devices such as desktop PCs or mobile phones. You can access OneDrive directly from the internet on any device using just a browser or by using the OneDrive app or natively within Windows 10 using File Explorer. Microsoft offers two versions of OneDrive. OneDrive for personal cloud storage such as bundled with Office 365 Personal plans or for outlook.com users. And OneDrive for Business which is an enterprise version which works alongside SharePoint Online. OneDrive is free for personal usage. Business use of the personal OneDrive space is not licensed. It’s available if you have a Microsoft account, if you’ve enrolled into a Microsoft service such as Xbox Live, Outlook.com or Hotmail.com. With the free tier, you’re granted five gigabytes of storage space but you can purchase more for a small monthly fee. The OneDrive sync client is pre-installed on Windows 10 devices which allows you to access files stored in the cloud via File Explorer. OneDrive for Business uses the same sync engine as the personal version of OneDrive but OneDrive for Business points to an entirely different data storage facility. Other differences include it’s designed for businesses and uses SharePoint online as the storage platform. It’s licensed for commercial use and includes one terabyte of storage per user. Both versions of OneDrive allows users to collaborate with Office Online documents where users can work with the Office documents even if they do not have an Office license. They can use this feature across the web from anywhere. OneDrive for Business uses SharePoint Online for cloud-based storage which is securely stored in the Microsoft data centers. It’s worth noting that Microsoft have built sufficient protection and safeguards to meet the compliance standards with all of the leading industry standards including HIPAA and ISO 27001 plus many more.
Accessing OneDrive and OneDrive for Business
Let’s now take a look at accessing OneDrive and also OneDrive for Business. You can access OneDrive and OneDrive for Business in a number of ways. Both versions allow using the OneDrive App which is pre installed on a Windows 10 PC or the OneDrive App for Android and iOS platforms, that you can download from the online store. You can also access OneDrive by your browser or by using the app launcher link from any office for the web app. Let’s take a look how to access OneDrive via web browser. Open a web browser. And then enter OneDrive.live.com. And sign in using a personal Microsoft account. Here we can see, OneDrive in the web. Under OneDrive, we can see the files any files that We’ve recently worked on, photographs. Any files that we shared to us or by us. And also the recycle bin which takes into account any deletes from the web but also from any PC where I’ve used OneDrive using my personal account. In the bottom left-hand corner, we can see the amount of space used and also available within OneDrive account. We can also see an invitation to go premium. If we click this, here we can see the available OneDrive plans and possible upgrades. These include the Office 365 Home or Personal plan. On the right-hand side, we could also select OneDrive only. Where we pay for additional storage space in the cloud.
OneDrive for Business sharing
The majority of data within an organization will be private, and not for public consumptions. Businesses need to ensure that corporate data is not made available to unauthorized people. With OneDrive for Business, you can control how your users will share documents. Enterprise users can only share OneDrive for Business content if sharing has been allowed by an administrator. You can set three sharing options for your tenant. These are,
- Shareable: Anyone with the link
- Internal: Only people in your organization,
- Direct share: to specific people identified by email.
When you share a file from OneDrive, the user has several options. You can invite people to view or edit a document, and you can select specific people by typing their email addresses or names. OneDrive for Business should automatically resolve the people within your organization. You can also amend permissions from view to allow editing, and include a message for users receiving the email. You can also set an expiration date for the share. If you have an Office 365 or SharePoint online subscription, rather than just the OneDrive for Business standalone subscription, then you can use the sharing page in the OneDrive or SharePoint admin centers to manage your sharing settings. You can configure your tenant wide sharing permissions and have different setting for SharePoint files to files shared from OneDrive. The SharePoint settings applies to all sites, Office 365 groups, and OneDrive. For more information relating to SharePoint and OneDrive file sharing settings, take a look at the link.
As an administrator, you have access to the OneDrive for Business Admin Center. The console is available from the Microsoft 365 admin center or directly from the OneDrive web page by clicking OneDrive admin in the lower left corner, though this link is only visible to administrators. The benefit of using the OneDrive for Business Admin Center is that it allows you to easily manage your organization’s OneDrive business settings in one place. Once you have signed in to the OneDrive Admin Center, you can access many tasks, including managing external sharing and sharing notifications, preventing users from installing the OneDrive sync client, allowing syncing on computers joined to specific domains, and blocking the ability to sync specific file types. You can also set the default storage space allowance for OneDrive users, preserve OneDrive files after a user leaves the organization, and control user access to OneDrive. You can also control access to features in the OneDrive mobile apps. As an administrator, you can also grant yourself access to a user’s OneDrive for Business files and view the files and folders stored in OneDrive.
Let’s take a look and see how we can share our files that are stored in OneDrive for Business. Log into Microsoft 365 admin center as an administrator. Click Show All on the left-hand side, and then click All admin centers, and then click OneDrive. The OneDrive admin center appears and on the left-hand side, select Sharing. And here you can see the global settings for sharing within tenant. By default, anyone can share a link to all files. We can restrict this to internal so only people within your organization can view shared links and also direct so we can specify the people we want to view the links. We can also configure the advanced settings for shareable links. Let’s take a look. By default, all links do not expire. However, this is not very secure and I’d recommend that you set this to at least 90 days. In this way, all links will expire after 90 days. We can also configure what happens to files and folders with a link. Remember that these are global settings and therefore, if you want to allow your users some autonomy and be able to share files, you’ll need to educate them so they can modify the behavior. You can also configure external sharing. Remember that SharePoint and OneDrive share the same storage location and therefore, the settings are displayed here. By default, external sharing allows the most permissive use and you may want to restrict this to new and external users where they have to sign in to access the files. If you want to lock down your internal corporate files to only people in your organization, then you’ll use the least permissive options available. You can, however, have a mix and match between SharePoint and OneDrive. We can also review the advanced settings for external sharing, such as allow or block sharing on specific domains. Specify the domains to be allowed or blocked. We could also force the external users to use the same email account that the invitations were originally sent to and stop external users from sharing items that they do not own. You can also choose to display to owners the names of the people who have viewed their files. Let’s now look at the storage settings. Here we can see, by default, each OneDrive for Business user gets one terabyte of storage, but you can reduce this. Some of the E3, E4, and E5 plans allow you to increase the default storage up to five terabytes. However, I find in my experience that reducing the default storage to something like 10 gigabytes is acceptable. And finally, you can set the number of days that you can preserve OneDrive files after a user leaves the organization and their account is marked for deletion. The default is set to 30 days, but you can increase this to a maximum of 3,650 days, or 10 years. Notifications are for both admins and users and helps monitor and control which external users have access to their files. Once enabled, which it is by default, owners of files and folders stored in OneDrive will be emailed when another user invites external users to your shared files, an external user accepts an invitation to access your files, or an anonymous access link is created or changed. As an administrator, you can also turn on auditing to monitor what content is being shared externally. However, this will be done in the Microsoft 365 Security and Compliance Center. Finally, if you need to access one of your user’s OneDrive for Business files, you can. Bear in mind that this can be only performed by an administrator. Return to the Microsoft 365 admin center, select Users, Active users, and select the user. On user’s properties page, click OneDrive, and here we can see an option to create a link to the files. So long as the user has previously accessed their OneDrive Account, you should see an option to create a link to the files. Let’s select the link. After a few moments, Office 365 creates a special link which, when clicked, will open a new window, showing the user’s OneDrive for Business files. Here we can see all of the files and folder that have been used by user and stored in OneDrive for Business location.
Redirect known folders to OneDrive
If your organization is using cloud storage such as OneDrive for Business, you can use a feature similar to folder redirection that provides the functionality to allow you to set up folder redirection to your cloud storage. This feature is known as redirecting your known folders to OneDrive for Business. Let’s have a reminder about which Windows 10 folders are classed as known folders. These include the desktop, documents, pictures, screenshots, and camera roll folders. You can think of these folders as all the folders contained in a user’s profile. You can use Group Policy to automatically move or redirect files and folders so that they’re automatically saved in OneDrive for Business. There are several group policies that you can use to configure this feature. The first is to prompt users to move Windows known folders to OneDrive, and the second is to silently move Windows known folders to OneDrive, which silently enforces the redirection of files and folders to the cloud. Your users will still work with the same familiar folders. And as an advantage, their data will be backed up to OneDrive for Business. With the prompt users to move Group Policy setting, users will see a pop-up notification asking them to acknowledge the operation and click Start protection. This then moves their known folders to OneDrive for Business. If the prompt is dismissed, a reminder will appear in the Activity Center until the move is completed. Some end users may have already redirected their known folders to their personal OneDrive account, and in this scenario the pop-up will ask them to instead redirect to the organization’s OneDrive for Business account. If you don’t want users to have a choice when this action takes place, administrators can use the silently move Windows known folders to OneDrive Group Policy Object setting. With this Group Policy enabled, folders will be silently redirected to OneDrive for Business without any user interaction. This setting can be used with the Move setting so that if the silent redirection fails, then users will be prompted to manually move their folders. There are two additional group policies that you can use to prevent redirection. Prevent users from redirecting their Windows known folders to their PC. You can use this setting to force users to keep their known folders directed to OneDrive and also prevent users from moving their Windows known folders to OneDrive, which disables the feature. To use the redirect known folders to OneDrive for Business feature, you’ll need to have a OneDrive for Business license. These are available as a standalone license or bundled with SharePoint Online, Office 365 subscriptions, and Microsoft 365 subscriptions. There are also some requirements for implementing known folder redirection to OneDrive for Business. These include you must ensure that you have the current OneDrive sync build on client devices, that you don’t have any existing GPO settings for Windows folder redirection. And if any of the known folders include a OneNote notebook, then the whole folder will not be moved to OneDrive for Business, so you’ll need to remove any OneNote notebooks from your known folders. You can check the version of your OneDrive sync engine by clicking the About tab in your OneDrive app.
Microsoft Teams is a cloud app that’s been designed as a hub for teamwork. It allows you to bring together a team and resources, communicate via chat and messaging, make calls and hold meetings and live events, and share and edit documents. Microsoft Teams is integrated with existing Microsoft products such as Office 365 apps, and uses SharePoint to store data and documents. Microsoft Teams is built on Office 365 groups, and it uses Microsoft Graph to link together the data and services.
You may be thinking that the features offered by Microsoft Teams sound very much like the features offered by Microsoft’s other communication app, Skype. And yes, they do sound similar. However, Skype for Business will be fully retired on July 31st, 2021. And since September the 1st, 2019 Microsoft have been onboarding all new Office 365 customers directly to Microsoft Teams instead of Skype for all chat, meetings and calling. And to avoid confusion throughout this post, I’ll use the words Microsoft Teams when referring to the app itself, and team or teams when referring to a collaboration space that’s been created using the Microsoft Teams app.
With the Microsoft Teams app you can create a new team. This consists of people and contents, such as chat, files and tools. Team owners can invite members to come together and use the team as a space to communicate and work collaboratively. Teams can also be made public to anyone in an organization, or they can be private, accessible to only invited users. When you create a new team, then a number of components are automatically created. A new Office 365 group for the members of the team. A SharePoint Online team site and document library to store team files. An Exchange Online shared mailbox and calendar. A OneNote notebook. And also links to other services, such as Planner and Power BI.
Teams channels, chats, and apps
Let’s now review Microsoft Teams. Communication is at the heart of Microsoft Teams, and there are several communication tools available. These include channels, chats and apps. Let’s review these key components. Teams are made up of channels. A channel is a dedicated section within a team for a specific topic, department or project. Channels are then used to share relevant messages, documents, apps and other resources to all members who have access to the channel. Each channel also has a different folder in the SharePoint Online team site. Chat is a popular feature that allows you to message other members of your group in real time. Each message is shown with a users name, the date and the time that the message was written. Public chats can be sent to all members of a team within a channel, or you can use them as a private text conversation between individual members. The key benefit to chat is that communications are much faster and more efficient when compared to email. You can also use apps within channels to find and share content. For example, you can share content on a tab in a specific format. For example, share an Excel or Word document. Use connectors to receive automatic updates directly into a channel from places such as Twitter and RSS feeds. You can add content from external services, perhaps the latest news, a weather report, or a video. And you can even chat with a service bot which provides help and assistance.
Calls, meetings, and events
Microsoft Teams allows you to communicate by sharing files, external content and holding text-based chats with your colleagues. You can also use Microsoft Teams to make calls, hold meetings, and even run live events. The Microsoft Teams Calls function allows you to dial a telephone number or to dial into a meeting. Meetings in Teams include audio, video, and screen sharing for up to 300 people. Participants can attend meetings using a desktop PC, a mobile device or even a normal telephone. And anyone can attend a meeting, even people from outside of your organization who do not have a Microsoft Teams account. They just need the meeting link. When a meeting is recorded, the recording is stored automatically online so you can share it to participants. There are several different ways to join a Teams meeting. These include join using the link that’s been sent to you, dial into a meeting using a phone number or dial out to somebody, join from a scheduled calendar invitation, join from within a channel where you’ll be able to see the invitation to join. Join from within a chat. Any meeting that has started will be shown and use a traditional meeting room to link into a Microsoft Teams meeting. Another feature of Microsoft Teams is live events. Using this feature, you can schedule and then stream a live event to a large audience online. As live events often need security people to run them, you can use Microsoft Teams to manage the event planning and you can make events public or private. Events can be either created directly using the Microsoft Teams app where you invite attendees and presenters to participate using their own devices or you can create an event using professional external cameras and recorders and then viewers can access and view the event using Microsoft Teams via an invitation link.
Using documents and files within Teams
Microsoft Teams is fully integrated with SharePoint Online, you can view, share, and edit documents from within the Microsoft Teams. Because Microsoft Teams is integrated into SharePoint Online, it’s also integrated with OneDrive for Business. You can share documents with other Microsoft Teams users. For example, within the Chat Message screen, you can upload a file from either OneDrive for Business or from the local hard drive of your device. You can also add files to channels for other users to view them. You’re also able to edit documents and work collaboratively with other users of Microsoft Teams. Whenever a link to a shared document stored within Teams, is clicked, you can edit the document directly within the Microsoft Teams environment. In this way, you and your colleagues can edit the display content in a real-time collaboration. You do not directly manage individual document-sharing settings for files stored in Microsoft Teams. This is because Microsoft Teams uses the Sharing settings that have been configured for SharePoint Online and OneDrive for Business.
Deploy Microsoft Teams
Let’s now see how to deploy Microsoft Teams. Microsoft Teams might be the first communications and collaboration app used by organization. Or you might be moving from Skype for Business Online to Microsoft Teams. Let’s take a quick overview of how to implement Microsoft Teams as a new implementation. Because Microsoft Teams allows you to integrate many of the other Microsoft products, you should first set these up as part of your Microsoft Teams deployment. This can include Office 365, SharePoint Online, Exchange Online for email, OneNote and other services; such as Planner, Power BI and Azure Active Directory. Prepare your organization’s network for Teams. This includes configuring your Microsoft 365 or Office 365 domain, SharePoint Online, Exchange Online, and OneDrive for Business.
Even if you’re already using some of these services, you may still need to review and amend the settings so they can be configured to work with Microsoft Teams. Let’s take a look at a high level overview of what needs to be done to deploy Teams. Get Teams licenses for everybody. Check out Teams plans and Microsoft Teams service description.
You’ll start by ensuring that all associated services are ready to be integrated with Microsoft Teams. You’ll need to assess any current setup and implement any necessary changes. Or, if you’re starting from scratch, then you’ll need to complete the setup for each product or service. You’ll then need to configure your organizational-wide settings for Microsoft Teams. These settings allow you to manage how Microsoft Teams works and includes settings for notifications, email, feeds, files and devices. The next step is to manage settings specific to the features of Microsoft Teams. For example, you should create policies to control how features can be used within your organization or control who can record live events or whether you allow third party apps to be used. The client app then needs to be deployed. You can do this by pushing out your devices or by informing your end users how to install the Microsoft Teams client app themselves. You then need to create an initial team and associated channels. This is usually a company-wide welcome to Microsoft Teams team. Of course, you can allow end users to create their own teams and channels, but it’s best practice for an administrator to create several initial teams as part of the deployment process. Administrators will then need to manage the permissions for users and perhaps create user groups in Office 365 if they don’t already exist. Invitations will need to be sent out for end users, inviting them to use the existing teams, and you need to ensure that training, both for IT staff and end users, is made available and completed. Finally, once all of these deployments steps have been completed, users can use Teams. They can then create their own teams, set up channels, add apps, files and feeds, and being to communicate and collaborate with their colleagues. It’s important to know how users are using Teams and what their experience is with Teams. Usage reports can help you better understand usage patterns, and along with user feedback, give you insights to inform your wider rollout and where to prioritize training and communication efforts.
If you’re a small business, or if you want to roll out Teams starting with chat, teams & channels, and meetings, use Microsoft prescriptive Get started guidance, which is designed to get you up and running quickly. If you’re a large organization with a hybrid or on-premises Skype for Business configuration, or if you want to roll out voice features (such as Microsoft 365 or Office 365 calling plans or phone system), you can start with Microsoft Get started guidance, but you’ll need the additional guidance below, under Deeper adoption guidance.
Moving from Skype for Business Online
For businesses that are upgrading from Skype for Business Online to Microsoft Teams, there are some additional considerations. Skype for Business Online reaches end of support on July 31st, 2021, and Skype for Business Online users will need to upgrade to Microsoft Teams. Microsoft provide an upgrade framework to help you with the process of upgrading to Microsoft Teams. The framework covers every step from planning through to Microsoft Teams being ready to use. It’s very likely that you’ll need to have both Skype for Business Online and Microsoft Teams running at the same time, at least for a period of time during your upgrade. There are several supported scenarios that you can use.
These are called Islands mode, Skype for Business Online only, Microsoft Teams only, Skype for Business Online with Microsoft Teams. Islands mode is where the two services run separately alongside each other. Skype for Business Online only is where Microsoft Teams is implemented in the background, and then a switchover is made. Microsoft Teams only is where users are upgraded in deployment rings. Once upgraded they no longer have access to Skype, except to join meetings with non-upgraded users. And finally Skype for Business Online with Microsoft Teams collaboration is where Skype usage is unchanged, but you add in Microsoft Teams functionality, such as teams, channels, and access to files. In preparation for upgrading to Microsoft Teams, you’ll need to evaluate your current Skype for Business Online setup. You’ll need to review your network capabilities to ensure that it will curb the additional features such as file sharing as well as calls and meetings, and check your setup of Office 365, such as directory synchronization, and if you’re using a multi-tenant or dedicated tenant. And because Microsoft Teams also uses OneDrive for Business, SharePoint Online, Exchange Online, OneNote, and Azure Active Directory, you’ll need to ensure that these services are all configured correctly to work with Microsoft Teams.
How to rollout Microsoft Teams and features
Once the technical setup has been completed and Microsoft Teams is ready to use, administrators can then implement Microsoft Teams features.
Microsoft recommend a phased feature-by-feature rollout as shown in the diagram on the screen starting with Teams and channels. Administrators will first create a new team and then add extra owners for the team who will manage it. Then roll out the Microsoft Teams client app to users. Invite people to join the team. These are normally the early adopters. And set up channels for the newly-created team. They will also need to manage the settings for teams such as allowing end users to create new channels. The next step is to create policies that control how the Chats feature can be used. You’ll also manage settings such as allow people to delete sent messages or to use URL previews and allow voice messaging. You can also add custom tabs to chat so that users can easily find things. Administrators can also add apps to channels such as the OneNote app or a direct feed from your corporate Twitter account or an external webpage. You can also add new tabs with links within the channel to organize things and to make items easier for your users to find. When a new team channel is created, the conversation, files, and Wiki tabs are created by default.
Meeting and live events both have policy settings that need to be managed. For meetings, these include settings to allow Outlook to be used, whether anonymous users can join meetings, the formatting on email invitations, and your network settings. And for events, you need to manage who can view an event and who can record an event.
Finally, if you have a call planned then you need to set up Microsoft Teams to be used for voice calls. This includes setting up call queue messages for when people are waiting for calls to be answered, menu systems, also called auto-attenders. For example, “Press one for sales.” And create call park policies, which are used when people are on hold as part of being diverted to another operator. Block callers using caller ID policies and create calling policies to manage settings to control which call features can be used.
Of course you’ll also need to ensure that your IT staff members are trained to manage and support Microsoft Teams. Your end users will need to be informed about the upgrade and then trained to use Microsoft Teams and know how to find support and help. Your users can then start to create their own channels, add apps and files, and collaborate with others.
Let’s take a look at the policy settings we can configure. Lets Sign into the Microsoft 365 admin center. And on the left-hand side, click show all. And then select the teams item. Here we can see through Microsoft Teams admin center has launched. And if you want to create a new policy to manage settings for the chat feature. So on the left-hand side, select messaging policies. Here we can see the global organizational-wide default policy, which we can review. To create a policy click add, provide a policy name and description, and then review the various settings. Lets say we’re happy with owners and users to delete sent messages so therefore let’s first set these two settings to on. We don’t want anyone to be able to edit sent messages so therefore I’ll disable this setting. And we want to turn on read receipts for everyone. I’ll confirm that chat is enabled and we can work our way down the list selecting required options. If we require more information on a particular option we can click on the small I where available. If required, we can also see help using support to office.com. Once we’ve selected our policy settings at the bottom we can click on the save button and the policy will be created and displayed on your list as a custom policy. We now need to assign this policy to a user or group. And so in the left-hand menu click on users and here you can see all users. Using the tick boxes on the left-hand side select the users that you want to apply this policy to. And then click edit settings. And here we can see the various policies that we can apply. Under messaging policy on the dropdown, select the messaging policy that we recently configured and then click apply. And we can see that the policy has been assigned to the users.
Managing Microsoft Teams
You could administer Microsoft Teams by using the Microsoft Teams Admin Center. You can access the Microsoft Teams Admin Center from the Microsoft 365 Admin Center. Select admin centers and then click Teams. And here we can see the Microsoft Teams Admin Center. In order to spread the workload, larger organizations will need to have more than one administrator to manage Microsoft Teams. There are currently four roles available. These include Teams Service Administrator who can manage the service and create and manage Office 365 groups, the Teams Communications Administrator who can manage call and meeting features, the Teams Communication Support Engineer, who can troubleshoot communications issues using an advanced set of tools and the Teams Communication Support Specialist, who is able to troubleshoot communication using a basic set of tools. Administrators will need to manage settings, including organization-wide settings for external access, guest access, and Microsoft Team settings, such as mail integration, files, devices, and feeds. They’ll also need to manage the settings for apps that will be used within Microsoft Teams. You can also configure policies, which will be created to control how features can be used. You can create policies for Teams, meetings, live events, apps, and calls. And finally, you’ll need to monitor your Microsoft Teams deployment. This will include, during the initial pilot deployment stage, that you ensure that settings have been correctly implemented before you then roll out Microsoft Teams to the rest of your organization. Later on, you’ll gain insights into how your end users are using Microsoft Teams so you can optimize the settings. Let’s use the Microsoft Teams Admin Center to view the organizational-wide settings. On the left hand side menu, select org-wide settings. And here we can see the various options available to us.
Select external access, and here we can configure the integration options for Skype for Business and Skype external users and we can also add or block domains in this area. If we want to communicate to an external company, we should add their domain. Lets enter a domain and click done and click save, and the settings are saved. On the left hand side, select guest access and here, we can grant access to guests in Teams. If we set this permission to be on and this exposes the various areas where we can allow guest access. You should view all of the settings and carefully consider which areas you would like guest access. Within Team settings, we have settings for notifications and feeds, email integration. Within files, we can configure cloud file storage options. Manage the organizational view, devices, and also search. Within Teams upgrade, we’re in the middle of upgrading from Skype for Business online to Microsoft Teams. Therefore, I’ll select the islands mode.
I’ll notify my users that an upgrade to Teams is available. I’ll click save.
If you click holidays, and here, we can add in holidays for days when our company will be closed. For example, Christmas day. Click add holiday, provide a name, select the date, and then click save. These holidays will be then populated across all calendars within our organization.
I don’t need to provide any resource accounts within my tenant.
The network planner can be useful when trying to work out the network requirements for connecting various physical locations together.
Originally published at https://github.com.